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Amphibian and Reptile Survey 

on 
Montana Refuges: 1996 



A Report to: 

US Fish and Wildlife Service 

Montana Field Office 

P.O. Box 10023 
Helena, MT 59626 

Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge 

922 Bootlegger Trail 

Great Falls, MT 59404-6133 

Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge 
HC 65, Box 5700 
Malta, MT 59538 

Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge 

P.O.Box 110 

Lewistown, MT 59457 



Submitted by 

PAUL HENDRICKS and JAMES D. REICHEL 

March 1998 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 
1515 East Sixth Avenue 

P.O. Box 201800 
Helena, MT 59620-1800 









© 1 998 Montana Natural Heritage Program 



This document should be cited as follows: 

Hendricks, P., and J. D. Reichel. 1 998. Amphibian and reptile survey on Montana refuges: 1 996. Montana Natural 
Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 1 9 pp. 



ABSTRACT 

A total of 37 site surveys were made between May and July 1996 on lands administered by the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in north-central Montana. Localized areas across the entire region 
were covered in the survey; included during the 1996 inventory were 9 Waterfowl Protection 
Areas (WPAs) and 6 National Wildlife Refuge (NWR's). Most were surveys, usually made by 1 
individual, of ponds, lakes, seeps, streams or other wetlands. Each survey took 6-120 person- 
minutes and consisted of a thorough search of the wetland perimeter and netting of near shore 
aquatic habitats for adults, eggs, larvae, and tadpoles. Stream sampling, when conducted, was 
done by hand and dipnet. Seeps were checked by rolling over rocks and logs in and near wet 
areas. In addition to surveys, sightings were made from road kills, vocal identifications or 
fortuitous sightings by other reliable individuals. An additional 132 wetlands (permanent or 
temporary) were surveyed, and 36 opportunistic observations were made, in the region 
encompassing the USFWS units. 

Five amphibian species and three reptile species were detected during the 1996 site surveys. 
Amphibian and reptile species, and number of WPA/NWR's ("units") where detected, included 
Tiger Salamander {Ambystoma tigrinum) at 3 units, Western Chorus Frog {Pseudacris triseriata) 
at 1 1 units, Woodhouse's Toad (Bufo woodhousii) at 1 unit, Great Plains Toad (Bufo cogiiatus) 
at 1 unit, Northern Leopard Frog {Rana pipiens) at 1 unit, Painted Turtle {Chrysemys picta) at 3 
units, Common Garter Snake {Thamnophis sirtalis) at 1 unit, and Plains Garter Snake 
{Thamnophis radix) at 2 units. Opportunistic encounters added three species detected on 
USFWS units in 1996: Western Hognose Snake (Heterodon nasicus), Racer {Coluber 
constrictor), Gopher Snake (Pituophis catenifer). Other wetland surveys and opportunistic 
encounters in the region in 1 996 included three additional species (one amphibian and two snake 
species) not recorded at the USFWS units during the inventory: Plains Spadefoot {Scaphiopus 
bombifrons), Western Terrestrial Garter Snake {Thamnophis elegans), Western Rattlesnake 
{Crotalus viridis). 

Greatest detected diversity was on or near Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge 
(CMR), which included all species encountered in 1 996 except Plains Garter Snake; this species 
was detected on the adjacent UL Bend NWR, however, and probably occurs on the CMR as well. 
Almost 33% of all site surveys during the 1996 inventory were on or near the CMR, which is the 
largest unit on which site surveys were conducted. No amphibians or reptiles were noted on three 
USFWS units, one species on five units, two species on 4 units, three species on one unit, and 
seven species on one unit. For all (37) site surveys, no species were detected on 12, one species 
on 15, two species on 6, three species on 3, and four species on 1. 

Historical records and earlier surveys indicated the presence of four additional species on 
USFWS lands not encountered during the 1996 surveys: Plains Spadefoot, Spiny Softshell 
{Trionyx spiniferus), Short-horned Lizard {Phrynosoma douglasi), Western Rattlesnake. 



in 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ABSTRACT iii 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v 

■ 

INTRODUCTION 1 

METHODS AND MATERIALS 2 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4 

RECOMMENDATIONS 8 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 

APPENDIX 1. SITES SURVEYED 15 

APPENDIX 2. SPECIES DETECTED ON SURVEYS 18 

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 






We thank K. Werner for conducting some of the site surveys, M and J. Miller for data entry, 
S. Lee-Schadde and C. Jones for making the maps. Financial support for the project came from 
the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Montana Field Office) and the Montana Natural Heritage 
Program (Montana State Library, Natural Resources Information System and The Nature 
Conservancy). 

. Museum records were received from: American Museum of Natural History, Academy of 
Natural Science, Brigham Young University, California Academy of Science, Carnegie Museum, 
University of Puget Sound Museum, Field Museum of Natural History, Glacier National Park 
Museum, Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Kansas, Los Angeles County Museum, 
Louisiana State University Museum of Zoology, Museum of Comparative Zoology - Harvard, 
Milwaukee Public Museum, Montana State University Museum, Michigan State University 
Museum, North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Northern Louisiana University 
Museum, University of Colorado Museum, University of Georgia Museum of Natural History, 
University of Idaho Museum, University of Michigan Museum, University of South Dakota, 
United States National Museum of Natural History, University of Texas - Arlington, University 
of Texas - El Paso, and Peabody Museum - Yale. Most museum data were received with the help 
of Dr. Charles Peterson, Idaho State University, Pocatello. 

Jim Reichel died prior to the completion of this report. Jim was instrumental in organizing 
and conducting a series of amphibian and reptile surveys across Montana, the first comprehensive 
effort in three decades. This report represents one of a series of projects that contribute to a 
baseline inventory of the entire state. 

, 



INTRODUCTION 

Many amphibians are apparently declining in the western U.S. and world-wide. Acid rain, 
ozone depletion, pollution by toxic chemicals and heavy metals, predation and/or competition by 
exotic species, habitat alteration, climatic changes, disease, immune system problems, and 
combinations of several of these factors have all been suggested as possible causes (Corn and 
Fogelman 1984, Phillips 1990, Yoffe 1992). 

Preliminary data indicate that the Northern Leopard Frog {Rana pipiens) has disappeared over 
much of its former range in western Montana and is declining in at least some areas of eastern 
Montana. Status and population trends of several toad species {Bufo spp.) are unknown, 
although declines of the Western Toad {Bufo boreas) have recently been reported in northern 
Idaho (C. Peterson pers. comm.), northwestern Montana (Werner and Reichel 1994), 
Yellowstone National Park (Koch and Peterson 1995) and Colorado (Carey 1993). Land-use 
practices, such as large-scale logging, continue to be detrimental to resident herpetofauna in some 
regions of the western U.S. (Bury et al. 1991), while the impacts of grazing on amphibians and 
reptiles and their habitats remain poorly studied and understood. Heavy grazing in and around 
breeding waters may also negatively impact amphibians and reptiles living in riparian and wetland 
sites by 1) eliminating emergent vegetation necessary for egg and larval survival, 2) lowering 
water quality, especially causing high siltation levels, 3) soil compaction and trampling of turtle 
eggs, and 4) trampling of eggs, larvae and adults. Additionally, "improving" seeps and springs for 
livestock watering may make them unavailable to breeding amphibians. 

The Montana Natural Heritage Program currently (1997) lists five amphibian and five reptile 
species as Animal Species of Special Concern. Of these, Canadian Toad {Bufo hemiophrysj, 
Northern Leopard Frog {Rana pipiens), Snapping Turtle {Chelydra serpentina), Spiny Softshell 
{Trionyx spiniferus), Western Hognose Snake {Heterodon nasicus) and Milk Snake 
{Lampropeltis triangulum) occur or potentially occur in the region of focus in this report. 






METHODS AND MATERIALS 

Six National Wildlife Refuges (Thibadeau, Creedman Coulee, Black Coulee, Bowdoin, 
Charles M. Russell, UL Bend) and nine Waterfowl Protection Areas (Foster Creek, Jarina, 
Kingsbury, Korsbeck, Holm, Brown, Webb, Dyrdahl, Pearse) in north-central Montana were 
surveyed during the 1996 inventory. 

Historical locations of amphibians and reptiles were recorded from literature (see 
Bibliography) and museum specimen records. Records were received from over 20 major 
museums which have -computerized their collections in North America (see Acknowledgments). 
Locations derived from these sources have been entered into a database and digitized. 
Distribution maps were created using survey and sighting data and historical records, including 
specimens. 

Survey sites were chosen based on 3 criteria: 1) high priority sites as determined by the 
USFWS, 2) location of streams, seeps and wetlands on topographic maps, and 3) accessibility of 
the wetlands by roads. Based on the above, 3-6 sites were chosen daily for surveys. Six minutes 
to 2 hours were spent at each site, depending upon the size of the area and what was found. 
Initially, the entire shoreline, or a major part thereof, was searched by walking slowly along the 
edge and up into the surrounding vegetation, including rolling over rocks and logs. At regular 
intervals, the aquatic habitat was sampled for tadpoles or larvae using dipnets. If the initial 
sampling showed amphibian/reptile species present, further effort was expended in order to get 
some idea of abundance and distribution. 

An attempt was made to capture at least the first few individuals of a species seen at a survey 
site. The species name was recorded along with developmental stage and sex (if possible); the 
animals were then released. On occasion, representative samples of the more common species in 
an area were preserved for permanent museum records and will be deposited at the Idaho State 
University Museum. Water temperature, air temperature, and a general description of the area 
were recorded. Standard data sheets were used during this project; the amphibian survey data 
sheet was developed by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is used extensively by a variety of 
researchers in the western U.S. Much site-specific data was gathered during these surveys; not all 
data has been analyzed or is presented in this report, but is available from the Montana Natural 
Heritage Program. 

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Herp Survey Locations 



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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

General Summary 

A total of 37 sites was surveyed in May through July 1996 of which 25 had one or more 
amphibian or reptile species present (Appendix 1). Localized areas across the entire region were 
covered in the inventory; included were 9 Waterfowl Protection Areas (WPAs) and 6 National 
Wildlife Refuge (NWR's). Although no species were found at 12 sites, their absence may have 
been due to the time of day, weather conditions, or other factors at the time of sampling. 

Five amphibian species and three reptile species were detected during the 1996 site surveys on 
USFWS administered lands (Appendix 2). Amphibian and reptile species, and number of 
WPA/NWR's ("units") where detected, included Tiger Salamander {Amby stoma tigrimtm) at 3 
units, Western Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata) at 1 1 units, Woodhouse's Toad (Bufo 
woodhousii) at 1 unit, Great Plains Toad {Bufo cognalus) at 1 unit, Northern Leopard Frog 
(Rana pipiens) at 1 unit, Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta) at 3 units, Common Garter Snake 
(Thamnophis sir talis) at 1 unit, and Plains Garter Snake (Thamnophis radix) at 2 units. 

Greatest detected diversity was on or near Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge 
(CMR), which included all species encountered in 1996 except Plains Garter Snake; this species 
was detected on the adjacent UL Bend NWR, however, and probably occurs on the CMR as well. 
Almost 33% of all site surveys during the 1996 inventory were on or near the CMR, which is the 
largest unit on which site surveys were conducted. No amphibians or reptiles were noted on three 
USFWS units, one species on five units, two species on 4 units, three species on one unit, and 
seven species on one unit. No species were detected on 12, one species on 15, two species on 6, 
three species on 3, and four species on 1 of the site surveys. 

Opportunistic sightings on USFWS units in 1996 added three species not reported during site 
surveys: Gopher Snake (Pituophis catenifer), Western Hognose Snake (Heterodon nasicus), 
Racer (Coluber constrictor). Historical records and earlier surveys indicated the presence of four 
additional species on USFWS lands not encountered during the 1996 inventory: Plains Spadefoot 
(Scaphiopus bombifrons), Spiny Softshell (Trionyx spiniferus), Short-horned Lizard 
(Phrynosoma douglasi), Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis). 

In addition to the 37 site surveys on USFWS units, there were 132 site surveys in 1996 on 
other public lands (mostly BLM) in the region, and 36 opportunistic sightings (i.e. road kills, 
chance observations) for which data are available and the sightings considered reliable. Survey 
results included Tiger Salamander at 3 sites, Western Chorus Frog at 32 sites, Northern Leopard 
Frog at 10 sites, Plains Spadefoot at 2 sites, Painted Turtle at 5 sites, Plains Garter Snake at 8 
sites and Western Terrestrial Garter Snake (Thamnophis elegans) at 1 site. These surveys and 
opportunistic encounters in 1996 included three species not recorded at the USFWS units during 
the 1996 inventory: Plains Spadefoot, Western Terrestrial Garter Snake, Western Rattlesnake. 

The following accounts are organized by USFWS unit, beginning with eight NWR's 
(including two not visited in 1996) and followed by nine WPA's. Included in each account are a 
description of the 1996 survey results and a summary of species previously documented from each 
unit and in the MTNHP database in Helena. 



USFWS Unit Accounts 

Black Coulee National Wildlife Refuge . One survey was conducted at this unit on 1 July. Two 
tadpoles of the Western Chorus Frog, confirming breeding, were sampled during 30 sweeps. 
There are no additional records of amphibians or reptiles for this refuge in the MTNHP database. 

Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge . No surveys were conducted on this refuge in 1996. 
There are records of four species (Tiger Salamander, Western Chorus Frog, Painted Turtle, Plains 
Garter Snake) for this refuge in the MTNHP database. 

Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge . Four surveys were conducted at this unit, three on 20 June 
and one on 25 July. Two species were noted, one each on two 20 June surveys: one adult 
Painted Turtle was seen in the Lakeside Unit near Dry Lake Canal, and Western. Chorus Frog (3 
adults and about 100 tadpoles) was observed in Goose Island Pond. Two other species were 
encountered in 1996. Two Gopher Snakes and one Racer were seen near the maintenance shop 
on 20 June. There are records of two additional species (Tiger Salamander, Western Rattlesnake) 
for this refuge in the MTNHP database. 

Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge . Twelve surveys were conducted on or near this 
refuge between 13-18 June. A total of seven species was detected at nine sites: Tiger 
Salamander (larvae) at 1 site. Western Chorus Frog at 8 sites (adults at 5 sites, tadpoles at 4 
sites), Woodhouse's Toad at 3 sites (adults at 2 sites, tadpoles at 1 site), Great Plains Toad at 2 
sites (adults at 1 site, a juvenile at 1 site), Northern Leopard Frog at 2 sites ( 1 adult at each), 
Painted Turtle (one adult) at 1 site, Common Garter Snake (one adult) at 1 site. Woodhouse's 
Toad was noted at two other sites in 1996: one adult near the mouth of Sand Creek on 14 June, 
one adult between the N & S Forks of Rock Creek. Three additional species were encountered in 
1996. Western Hognose Snake was seen at 2 sites (Rd. 201 2 mi. E of Hwy 191 on 13 June, and 
2 mi. S of Rock Creek Marina on 16 June). Gopher Snake was seen at 2 sites (Rd. 201 6 mi. E of 
Hwy 191 on 13 June, and Knox Ridge Rd. 1 mi. W of Hwy 191 on 14 June). Racer was seen at 1 
site (Rd. 217 2 mi. S of Rock Creek Marina on 16 June). There are records of two additional 
species (Spiny Softshell, Western Rattlesnake) for this refuge in the MTNHP database. 

Creedman Coulee National Wildlife Refuge . One survey was conducted at this unit on 3 June. At 
least ten adult Western Chorus Frogs were heard calling; no tadpoles were captured in 30 
sweeps. There are no additional records of amphibians or reptiles for this refuge in the MTNHP 
database. 

Thibadeau National Wildlife Refuge . This site was visited on 3 June, but only a small part (not 
surveyed) held any water and was a flooded hayfield; nearby Grassy Lake was plowed and dry. 
There are no records of amphibians or reptiles for this refuge in the MTNHP database. 



UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge . Two surveys were conducted on this refuge on 19 June. A 
total of three species was detected: Western Chorus Frogs (tadpoles) at 2 sites, Painted Turtle (1 
adult, 1 juvenile) at 1 site, Plains Garter Snake at 2 sites (5 and 4 adults, respectively). There are 
no additional records of amphibians or reptiles for this refuge in the MTNHP database. 

War Horse National Wildlife Refuge . No surveys were conducted on this refuge in 1996. There 
are records of three species (Western Chorus Frog, Plains Spadefoot, Northern Leopard Frog) for 
this refuge in the MTNHP database. 

Brown Waterfowl Protection Area . One survey was conducted at this WPA on 1 June. One 
species, Western Chorus Frog (about 50 calling adults), was observed; no tadpoles were caught 
in 15 sweeps. There are no additional records of amphibians or reptiles for this WPA in the 
MTNHP database. 

Dyrdahl Waterfowl Protection Area . One survey was conducted at this WPA on 1 1 July. One 
species, Western Chorus Frog (3 tadpoles), was captured in 50 sweeps of three potholes. There 
are no additional records of amphibians or reptiles for this WPA in the MTNHP database. 

Foster Creek Waterfowl Protection Area . One survey was conducted at this WPA on 22 July. 
No amphibian or reptile species were encountered. There are no records of amphibians or reptiles 
for this WPA in the MTNHP database. 

Holm Waterfowl Protection Area . Two surveys were conducted at this WPA on 4 June. Two 
species were noted: Western Chorus Frog (about 50 calling adults, no tadpoles in 20 sweeps) was 
noted at Holm Reservoir, Western Chorus Frog (about 100 adults, no tadpoles in 20 sweeps) and 
Plains Garter Snake ( 1 adult) were noted at McLaren Reservoir. There are no additional records 
of amphibians or reptiles for this WPA in the MTNHP database. 

Jarina Waterfowl Protection Area . Two surveys were conducted at this WPA on 31 May! One 
species was noted: Western Chorus Frog (5 calling adults, no tadpoles) was noted at an unnamed 
lake 0.5 mi. ENE of NW Howe Lake. No species were noted in NE Howe Lake. There are no 
additional records of amphibians or reptiles for this WPA in the MTNHP database. 

Kingsbury Waterfowl Protection Area . Four surveys were conducted at this WPA on 3 June. A 
total of two species was detected on 2 surveys: Tiger Salamander (larvae and eggs) at 2 sites, 
Western Chorus Frogs (4 calling adults) at 1 site. There are records of four additional amphibian 
and reptile species (Short-horned Lizard, Gopher Snake, Racer, Western Rattlesnake) for this 
WPA in the MTNHP database. 

Korsbeck Waterfowl Protection Area . Four surveys were conducted at this WPA on 4 June. A 
total of two species was detected on 3 surveys. Tiger Salamander (1 larvae in Pond 1) at 1 site, 
Western Chorus Frogs at 3 sites (8 calling adults and 90 tadpoles in Pond 1, 60 tadpoles in Pond 
2, 185 tadpoles in East Pond). There are no additional records of amphibians or reptiles for this 



WPA in the MTNHP database. 

Pearse Waterfowl Protection Area . One survey was conducted at this WPA on 25 July. No 
amphibian or reptile species were encountered. There are no records of amphibians or reptiles for 
this WPA in the MTNHP database. 

Webb Waterfowl Protection Area . One survey was conducted at this WPA on 1 1 July. No 
amphibian (50 sweeps) or reptile species were encountered. There are no records of amphibians 
or reptiles for this WPA in the MTNHP database. 





















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RECOMMENDATIONS 

1) Incidental sightings of amphibians and reptiles from the USFWS units should be recorded and 
forwarded to the Natural Heritage Program. Of particular interest are all observations and 
locations of breeding amphibians (tadpoles and/or eggs) and all reptiles. Use Reichel and Flath 
(1995) as an identification aid. Vouchers of amphibian tadpoles can be sent to the Natural 
Heritage program for identification. 

2) Due to the time constraints and the large area covered in the 1996 survey, it should not be 
regarded as a definitive index of all the amphibians and reptiles or their presence on the USFWS 
units. The secretive habits of many amphibians and reptiles, and our lack of knowledge regarding 
their reproductive behavior make it difficult to assess their overall status. We recommend that 
additional surveys be conducted. 



3) When more breeding locations for amphibians are known, long-term monitoring of typical 
'■ marsh-pond habitats should be set up at several sites in order to evaluate relative numbers and 

breeding success of the more common species: Tiger Salamander, Western Chorus Frog, 
Woodhouse's Toad, Northern Leopard Frog, Plains Garter Snake, and Common Garter Snake. 
Particular attention needs to be given to any toad and Northern Leopard Frog breeding sites 
found. Life history and ecology of the amphibians in Montana is poorly known for most species. 
Long-term monitoring will give us information on timing of breeding and habitat requirements 
needed for successful reproduction. 






BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Baxter, G. T. and M. D. Stone. 1985. Amphibians and reptiles of Wyoming. Wyoming Game 

and Fish Department. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 137 pp. 
Bergeron, D. No date. Terrestrial wildlife survey, Coal Creek Mine Area, Montana, 1977-1978. 

West. Tech. & Eng., Inc., Helena. 
Bernard, S. R. and K. F. Brown. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by 

BLM physiographic regions and A. W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven Western States. 
Black, J. H. 1967. A blue leopard frog from Montana. Herpetologica 23 (4):3 14-3 15. 
Black, J. H. 1969. The frog genus Rana in Montana. Northwest Sci. 43: 191-195. 
Black, J. H. 1970. Amphibians of Montana. Mont. Fish & Game Dept., Pub. No. 1 of Animals of 

Montana Series. 
Black, J. H. 1970. Some aspects of the distribution, natural history and zoogeography of the toad 

genus Bufo in Montana. M.S. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula. 
Black, J. H. 1970. Turtles of Montana. Montana Wildlife, Animals of Montana Series 2:26-32. 
Black, J. H. 1970.. Unusual forms of boreal toads Bufo boreas (Amphibia: Bufonidae) in Glacier 

National Park, Montana. Proc. Okia. Acad. Sci 50: 127-128. 
Black, J. H. 1971. The toad genus Bufo in Montana. Northwest Sci. 45: 156-162. 
Black, J. H. and A. M. Bragg. 1968. New additions to the herpetofauna of Montana. 

Herpetologica 24:247. 
Black, J. H. and R. B. Brunson. 1971. Breeding behavior of the boreal toad Bufo boreas boreas 

(Baird and Girard) in western Montana. Great Basin Nat. 31: 109-1 13. 
Black, J. H. and V. Craig (eds). 1970. Amphibians of Montana. Montana Wildlife, Animals of 

Montana Series 1:1-32. 
Bragg, A. N. 1940. Observations on the ecology and natural history of Anura. I. Habits, habitat 

and breeding of Bufo cogixatus say. Amer. Nat. 74:322-438. 
Breckenridge, W. J. and J. R. Tester. 1961. Growth, local movements, and hibernation of the 

Manitoba toad, Bufo hemiophrys. Ecology 42:637-646. 
Brunson, R. B. 1952. Recent collections of Bufo boreas boreas from western Montana. Proc. 

Montana Acad. Sci. 11:17-19. 
Brunson, R. B. 1955. Check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Montana. Proc. Mont. Academy 

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Brunson, R. B. and H. A. Demaree. 1951 . The herpetology of the Mssion Mountains, Montana. 

Copeia 1951:306-308. 
Bureau of Land Management. 1982. Bloomfield - North Fork baseline inventories - wildlife. Mies 

City, MT. 
Bury, R. B., P. S. Corn, K. B. Aubry, F. F. Gilbert and L. L. C. Jones. 1991. Aquatic amphibian 

communities in Oregon and Washington. U.S. DA. For. Serv., Pac. NW Res. Station Gen. 

Tech Rep. PNW-GTR-285:3 53-362. 
Camp, Dresser, and McKee, Inc. 1981. Anaconda Stillwater project 12-month environmental 

baseline report. Tech. Rpt. for Anaconda Copper Co. 
Carey, C. 1993. Hypothesis concerning the causes of the disappearance of boreal toads from the 

mountains of Colorado. Conservation Biology 7(2):355-362. 



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Conant, R. 1975. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of eastern and central North America. 

Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, xvii + 429 pp. 
Corn, P. S. No Date. Comment on the occurrence of Pseudacris clarki in Montana. Bull. Chi. 

Herp. Soc. 15(3):77-78. 
Corn, P. S. and J. C. Fogelman. 1984. Extinction of montane populations of northern leopard frog 

(Rana pipiens) in Colorado. J. Herpetol. 18:147-152. 
Craig, V. No date. The Axolotl "Walking Fish." Montana Outdoors? 2 pp. 
Davis, C. V. and S. E. Weeks. 1963. Montana Snakes. Montana Dept. of Fish and Game, Helena, 

MT, pp.1-10. 
Dood, A. R. 1980. Terry Badlands nongame survey and inventory: final report. Montana 

Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks BLM Contract #YA-512-CT8-217. 70 pp. 
Econ, Inc. 1974. Terrestrial wildlife inventory for the Lame Jones and Ismay coal lease tracts. 

Tech. Rpt. 
Ernst, C. H. 1971. CHRYSEMYS P1CTA. Cat. Am. Amph. Rep. 106.1-106.4. 
Ernst, C. H, J. E. Lovich, and R. W. Barbour. 1994. Turtles of the United States and Canada. 

Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 578 pp. 
Farmer, P. J. and K. Burgess. 1983. Jardine area baseline terrestrial wildlife study, May 15, 

1981-May 15, 1982, for Homestake Mining Co. West. Tech. Eng„ Helena. 
Farmer, P. J. and K. Burgess. 1984. Jardine area baseline terrestrial wildlife study. West. Tech. & 

Eng., Helena. 
Farmer, P. J. No date. Terrestrial wildlife survey, Pearl area, Montana, June, 1976 - June, 1977. 

Westech, Inc., Helena, MT. 
Farmer, P. J., S. B. Heath, D. J. Bergeron and K. L. Scow. 1985. Montana Tunnels 

project-baseline terrestrial wildlife study. Westech, Inc., Helena, MT. for Centennial Minerals, 

Inc. 
Finch, D. M. 1992. Threatened, endangered, and vulnerable species of terrestrial vertebrates in 

the Rocky Mountain Region. USFS General Technical Rep. RM-215. 38 pp. 
Fitch, H. S. 1980. THAMNOPHIS SIRTALIS. Cat. Am. Amph. Rep. 270.1-270.4. 
Fitch, H. S. 1983. THAMNOPHIS ELEGANS. Cat. Am. Amph. Rep. 320.1-320.4. 
Fitch, H. S. and T. P. Maslin. 1961. Occurrence of the garter snake, THAMNOPHIS SIRTALIS, 

in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of 

Natural History 13(5):289-308. 
Flath, D. L. 1981. Vertebrate species of special concern. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, 

and Parks. 74 pp. 
Flath, D. L. 1984. Vertebrate species of special interest or concern: mammals, birds, reptiles, 

amphibians, fishes. Wildlife Division, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. 76 pp. 
Gehlbach, F. R. 1967. AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM. Cat. Am. Amph. Rep. 52.1-52.4. 
Gibbons, J. W., S. S. Novak and C. H. Ernst. 1988. CHELYDRA SERPENTINA. Cat. Am. 

Amph. Rep. 420.1-420.4. 
Groves, C. R. and C. Peterson. 1992. Distribution and population trends of Idaho amphibians as 

determined by mail questionnaire. Unpubl. Rep. Idaho Dept Fish Game, Boise, Idaho. 16 pp. 
Halliday, T., and K. Adler. 1991. Encyclopedia of reptiles and amphibians. Facts on File, New 

York. 143 pp. 



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14 



APPENDIX 1. 

SITES SURVEYED DURING 1996 

AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE INVENTORY 



15 






Appendix 1. Sites surveyed during 1996 amphibian and reptile inventory. 



Site 










Locat 


ion 




Elevation 


Date 




Start Time 


Black Coulee NWR 






T34N 


R25E 


S24 


NW4 





10 


Jul 


9 6 


1730 


Bowdoin 


NWR 








T31N 


R31E 


S23 


SE4 


2224 


20 


Jun 


96 


1215 


Bowdoin 


NWR 


* 






T31N 


R31E 


S26 


NW4 


2220 


20 


Jun 


96 


1310 


Bowdoin 


NWR 








T30N 


R31E 


S15 


NW4 


2220 


20 


Jun 


96 


1435 


Bowdoin 


NWR 


* 






T30N 


R31E 


S05 


SW4SE4 


2220 


25 


Jul 


96 


0915 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR 




T21N 


R24E 


SOI 


NW4 


2283 


13 


Jun 


96 


1210 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR 




T21N 


R25E 


S02 


NW4 


2296 


13 


Jun 


96 


1415 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR(BLM 


land) 


T23N 


R25E 


S26 


NW4SW4 


2953 


13 


Jun 


96 


1630 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR 




T21N 


R24E 


S08 


NE4 


2887 


14 


Jun 


96 


1105 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR* 




T21N 


R2 5E 


S06 


SW4 


2461 


14 


Jun 


96 


1550 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR 




T21N 


R37E 


S13 


NW4 


2280 


14 


Jun 


96 


2210 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR(BLM 


land) 


T21N 


R37E 


S35 


NW4 


2526 


15 


Jun 


96 


0930 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR 




T23N 


R43E 


S21 


NE4 


2313 


16 


Jun 


96 


1130 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR 




T23N 


R43E 


S21 


SW4 


2330 


16 


Jun 


96 


1530 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR* 




T23N 


R43E 


S32 


NE.4 


2297 


16 


Jun 


96 


1435 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR* 




T21N 


R43E 


S28 


NE4 


2295 


16 


Jun 


96 


2010 


Charles 


M. 


Russell 


NWR 




T22N 


R32E 


S18 


NW4 


2297 


18 


Jun 


96 


1630 


Creedman Cc 


ulee NWR 




T37N 


R15E 


S16 


SE4SW4 





03 


Jun 


96 


1520 


Lake Th 


ibac 


leau NWR 


<r 




T35N 


R16E 


S26 


35, 36 





03 


Jun 


96 


1710 


UL Bend 


NWF 








T22N 


R30E 


S23 


NW4 


2392 


19 


Jun 


96 


1030 


UL Bend 


NWR 






T22N 


R29E 


S33 


SW4 


2461 


19 


Jun 


96 


1405 


Brown WPA 








T37N 


R02W 


S34NW,S35NW 





01 


Jun 


96 


1915 


Dyrdahl 


WPA 






T36N 


R29E 


S05 


SE4 


2850 


11 


Jul 


96 


2006 


Fo s t e r 


Zree 


;k WPA* 






T25N 


R05W 


S06 


NW4 


3930 


22 


Jul 


96 


1630 


Holm WPA (Holm Res 


■) 




T36N 


R18E 


S31 


S2 





04 


Jun 


96 


1950 


Holm WPA (McLaren 1 


^es . ) 




T35N 


R18E 


S06 


S2 





04 


Jun 


96 


1915 


Jarina 1 


rfPA 








T28N 


R09W 


S20 


NW4NE4 


4680 


31 


May 


96 


1620 


Jarina 1 


rfPA* 








T28N 


R09W 


S20 


SW4NW4 


4730 


31 


May 


96 


1750 


Kingsbury WPA 






T21N 


RUE 


S17 


NW4NE4 


3200 


03 


Jun 


96 


1145 



* Sites with no herps found during survey 

16 



Appendix 1 (cont.). Sites surveyed during 1996 amphibian and reptile inventory. 



Site 



Location 



Elevation Date 



Start Time 



Kingsbury WPA* 
Kingsbury WPA 
Kingsbury WPA* 
Korsbeck WPA* (Pond 
Korsbeck WPA 
Korsbeck WPA 
Korsbeck WPA 
Pearse WPA* 
Webb WPA* 



3) 
(Pond 2) 
(East Pond! 
(Pond 1) 



T21N 


RUE 


S07 


NE4SE4 


3270 


03 


Jun 


96 


1300 


T21N 


RUE 


S18 


SE4NW4 


3220 


03 


Jun 


96 


1415 


T21N 


RUE 


S07 


SE4SE4 





03 


Jun 


96 


1530 


T28N 


R27E 


S05 


NW4 





04 


Jun 


96 


1825 


T29N 


R27E 


S31 


SW4 


2590 


04 


Jun 


96 


1755 


T29N 


R27E 


S32 


SE4NW4 


2580 


04 


Jun 


96 


1515 


T29N 


R27E 


S31 


E2 


2770 


04 


Jun 


96 


1655 


T31N 


R32E 


S18 


SW4 


2228 


25 


Jul 


96 


1215 


T37N 


R29E 


S30 


NW4 


2800 


11 


Jul 


96 


1930 
























Sites with no herps found during survey 



17 



] 



1 

J 



APPENDIX 2. 

AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 

OBSERVED DURING SURVEYS IN 1996 






. 









18 



Appendix 2. Amphibians and reptiles observed on USFWS units during 1996 site surveys. 
Asterisk means breeding confirmed. 

Site Person Total number of adults/juv of each species observed 1 

Hrs:min AMTI BUWO BUCO PSTR RAPI CHPI THSI THRA 

Black Coulee 0:35 0/* 

Bowdoin (Lakeside Unit) 0:45 1/0 

Bowdoin (Goose Is. Unit) 0:35 2/* 

CMR (White Bottoms) 0:40 0/* 10/0 1/0 

CMR (Rock Cr. Res.) 1:00 0/* 1/0 

CMR (BLM Deep Res.) 0:40 10/0 

CMR (Sand Cr. Trail pond) 0:50 0/* 

CMR (Hell Cr. Mouth) 1:50 90/0 90/0 90/0 

CMR (BLM Hart Cr . ) 2:00 0/* 1/* 

CMR (N Fork Rock Cr.) 1:30 0/* 

CMR (pond, Rds 817 & 836)1:00 3/0 0/* 1/0 1/0 

CMR (Fourchette Bay) 0:30 10/0 

Creedman Coulee 0:40 10/0 

UL Bend (Valentine Res.) 1:00 0/* 1/1 5/0 

UL Bend (Res. Rd 212,201)0:40 0/* 4/0 

Brown 0:40 50/0 

Dyrdahl 0:30 0/* 

Holm (Holm Res.) 0:20 50/0 

Holm (McLaren Res.) 0:30 90/0 " 1/0 

Jarina ENE of NW Howe Lk 1:25 5/0 

Kingsbury ' (N pond) 0:15 0/* 4/0 

Kingsbury (NW pond) 0:06 0/* 

Korsbeck (pond 2) 0:15 0/* 

Korsbeck (E pond) 0:15 0/* 

Korsbeck (pond 1) 0:45 0/* 8/* 

AMTI (Ainbystoma ligrinum), BUWO (Bufo woodhousii), BUCO (B. cognaius), PSTR {Pseudachs triseriaia), RAPI {Rana pipienx), CI IPI (Chrysemys 



pictd), THSI (Thamnophis sirtalis), THRA (T. radix). 

19